When calculating electrical circuits, in addition to the Kirchhoff’s laws, the circuit current method is often used. The method of loop currents allows you to reduce the number of solvable equations.
When calculating electrical circuits, including for modeling purposes, Kirchhoff’s laws are widely applied, which make it possible to completely determine the mode of its operation.
Some relay protection and automation functions require information about the frequency of the observed voltage or current. We will consider the option of calculating the frequency of the electric signal from the transition through zero.
Modern relay protection and automation devices are built on a microprocessor-based elemental base (we denote them as MP device). When discussing the advantages and disadvantages of MP device, they often do this in comparison with electromechanical protection devices (EM device).
As far as we know, until the end of the nineteenth century there were neither relayers nor relay protection as such. But electric power and electrical engineering already existed at that time. And short circuits obviously happened periodically. What then protected the electrical equipment from electrical damage?